Heart Attack is termed as the Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the scientific language and it refers to the interruption of blood supply to a portion of the leading to death of cell of the heart. The common reason for the heart attack is the occlusion or blockage of a coronary artery. The cholesterol gets accumulated over time in the blood vessels and forms a plaque. This plaque narrows the artery and thus causes obstruction in the flow of blood through it. If this artery becomes very narrow, then the supply of blood to the heart muscles becomes very difficult especially in times stress. In case this plaque gets ruptured, a small blood clot builds up within the blood vessel leading to blockade of blood flow. This results in loss of blood supply to part of heart, causing the heart muscles to die. It refers to as a myocardial infarction where myo=muscle, cardial=heart, and infarction=death due to lack of oxygen.
Myocardial Infarction or Heart Attack is fatal in nature and if the patient is left untreated for a sufficient period of time then it may lead to damage or death of heart muscle tissue. The classical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction comprises of sudden chest pain that radiates to the left arm, breathlessness, palpitations, sweating, nausea, vomiting, and anxiety. The women usually experience lesser symptoms as compared to men and include shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness, and feeling of indigestion. In fact, about 25% of all the myocardial infarctions are "silent" in nature and they occur without any chest pain or other symptoms.
Heart attacks are among the leading cause of death throughout the world in both men and women. Some of the major risk factors include older age, tobacco smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, previous cardiovascular disease, high level of lipids in blood, and low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), chronic high stress levels, chronic kidney disease, excessive alcohol consumption, and others.