A Majority of the risk factors associated with Myocardial Infarction can be modified and it is possible to prevent a large number of heart attacks by adopting a healthier lifestyle. The physical activity is linked with a lower risk profile. However, there are some risk factors that cannot be modified and it includes age, sex, and family history of an early heart attack. Apart from these factors, there are some socio-economic factors including the lack of proper education, lower income and unmarried cohabitation that add to the risk of MI. In order to understand the epidemiological study results, one should note that lots of factors associated with MI express their risk via other factors. For example the income and marital status of an individual is related to the education level.
The risk of myocardial infarction is increased moderately in women who use combined oral contraceptive pills. It is compounded in presence of other risk factors such as smoking. The
inflammation is regarded as an important step in the atherosclerotic plaque formation and the presence of C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker for inflammation. The elevated CRP blood levels also help in predicting the risk of MI, stroke and diabetes. Inflammation in periodontal disease might be linked to coronary heart disease. The Serological studies measures the antibody levels against typical periodontitis-causing bacteria and concluded that antibodies were present in good numbers in persons with coronary heart disease. Periodontitis led to increased blood levels of CRP, cytokines and fibrinogen; therefore it may mediate its effect on MI risk via other risk factors.
Other independent risk factors for MI include the baldness, and hair greying. The presence of a diagonal earlobe crease and other skin features are also considered as independent risk factors for MI. The process of atherosclerotic plaque formation involves the calcium deposition and it can be detected by the CT scans. The coronary calcium offers predictive information about MI that cannot be obtained from classical risk factors.