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Heart Attack – Diabetes and Cocaine

Diabetes

There is direct relation between the high levels of diabetes and heart attack. Patients with diabetes are more prone to develop coronary artery blockages. The increased incidence of arteriosclerosis and heart attack is observed in both type1 and type2 diabetes. In fact, the coronary artery disease is the major cause of death in diabetic patients. The risk of heart attack in diabetes patients is based on the period of the illness. Patient with diabetes and heart attack carries higher risk for shock, death and heart failure. Diabetes patients usually suffer silent heart attack because of the autonomic nerve dysfunction. It is observed that patients with diabetes are obese in nature and possess high blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels that eventually lead to heart attack and blockages. The incidence of heart attack is also high in young person with severe diabetes. The insulin resistance in diabetic patients is linked to obesity and physical inactivity. The incidence of heart attack in diabetic patients is more common in Asian communities.

Cocaine

Heart attack in persons addicted to cocaine is very common in young people worldwide. The cause of cocaine induced heart attack is the severe constriction of blood vessels under the influence of cocaine consumed by the affected person. The cocaine narrows down all the blood vessels of body comprising of coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart. The narrowing of the coronary arteries eventually leads to loss of blood supply to the heart muscle that result in severe chest pain followed by sudden death. The cocaine is administered into the body through various routes including intravenously, intra-nasally, orally, and inhaling via smoking. The cocaine is mostly self -administered by the addicted person. It increases the effect the cocaine in combination with heroin. It is primarily used as the stress buster where the peak level is perceived in 15 to 20 mints. The cocaine heart attack is prevented by prohibiting the availability of the drug in addition to proper rehabilitation measurements for the victims.

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Heart Attack – Causes

The probability of the Heart attack is higher in individuals that undergo intense exertion including both the psychological stress and physical exertion. It is more pronounced where the exertion is more intense than the level of the individual performance. In fact, the period of intense exercise and subsequent recovery is associated with six fold higher myocardial infarction rate as compared with relaxed time frames for people who are physically fit. This rate of myocardial infarction increases to 35-fold higher in persons with poor physical condition. It happens because of the increased arterial pulse pressure during the stretching and relaxation of arteries with every heart beat. This led to the increased mechanical “shear stress” on atheromas leading to plaque rupture.

Another major cause of heart attack is the acute severe infection like pneumonia that can trigger myocardial infarction. The link between Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection and atherosclerosis is under study. The atherosclerotic plaques are found to contain this intracellular organism but this evidence is not conclusive to become a causative factor. Also, the treatment of patients with antibiotics does not lead to decreased risk of heart attacks or any other coronary diseases.

The timing of heart attack also varies as per the circadian rhythm. It has been observed that there is increased incidence of heart attack in the morning hours and in particular at 9 am. Some investigators opined the fact that the ability of platelets to aggregate changes as per the circadian rhythm. Others have theorized that this increased incidence of heart attack in morning hours might be related to the circadian variation in production of Cortisol. This in turn affects the concentrations of different cytokines and various mediators of inflammation. The study of the causes of the incidence of Myocardial Infarction can helps the individuals to remain alert of any symptoms and take preventive measures.

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