Healthy lifestyle and Medication – It is possible to manage the risk factors of MI by adopting strict blood pressure management and lifestyle changes. One can decreases the risk of MI significantly by smoking cessation, limiting alcohol intake, doing regular exercise and adopting a sensible diet for patients with coronary disease. Once a patient has survived MI, he has to be treated with several long-term medications that aim to prevent secondary cardiovascular events like cerebrovascular accident (CVA), congestive heart failure and further myocardial infarctions.
Using Poly unsaturated fats – The studies have shown that the consumption of polyunsaturated fats instead of saturated fats can lead to decrease in coronary heart disease.
The usage of Antiplatelet drug therapy like aspirin and/or clopidogrel are common for preventing MI as it minimizes the risk of plaque rupture and prevent recurrent myocardial infarction. Aspirin acts as a first-line therapy as it is cheap and has good efficacy. The combination of clopidogrel and aspirin also reduces the risk associated with cardiovascular events.
Beta blocker therapy – The usage of Beta blockers such as metoprolol or carvedilol is proven to be beneficial in high-risk patients. ?-Blockers significantly reduces the mortality and morbidity rates. They also enhance the symptoms of cardiac ischemia in NSTEMI.
ACE inhibitor therapy – The ACE inhibitors are used within 24–48 hours post-MI in hemodynamically-stable patients. It is specifically used in patients that have a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, MI, and left ventricular dysfunction. ACE inhibitors lead to reduction of mortality rate and it also prevent the development of heart failure, and decreases the ventricular remodelling after a patient suffered MI.
Omega-3 fatty acids are proven to reduce mortality post-MI.
Statin therapy – It is proven to reduce mortality and morbidity post-MI.
The aldosterone antagonist agent eplerenone reduces further risk of cardiovascular death post-MI in high risk patients with heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction.